ESGS Logical Fallacies
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Fallacies
" 'Contrariwise', continued Tweedledee, 'If it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn't, it ain't. That's logic.' "
Lewis Carroll, Through The Looking Glass, Ch. IV.

These fallacies are well-known and can be avoided, for the most part, using Aristotelian logic. However, some fallacies are best avoided using the 'logic' of general semantics, applying non-allness, non-identity and self-reflexivity. Most fallacies can be avoided with some knowledge of science and epistemology that the practice of general semantics helps to convey.

Fallacies of Distraction
Appeals to Motives in Place of Support
Changing the Subject
Inductive Fallacies
Causal Fallacies
Missing the Point
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Category Errors
Non Sequitur
Syllogistic Errors
Fallacies of Explanation
Fallacies of Definition

 Fallacies of Distraction 

 Appeals to Motives in Place of Support 

 Changing the Subject 

 Inductive Fallacies 

 Causal Fallacies 

 Missing the Point 

 Fallacies of Ambiguity 

 Category Errors 

 Non Sequitur 

 Syllogistic Errors 

 Fallacies of Explanation 

 Fallacies of Definition  


Some of the web sources that were extensively used to build these pages:
  1. The Nizkor Project: Fallacies
  2. Stephen Downes' Guide to Logical Fallacies
  3. The Atheism Web: Logic and Fallacies
  4. Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy Files
  5. The Skeptic's Dictionary: Fallacies

Bibliography:

  1. Bergmann, Merrie, James Moor, and Jack Nelson. The LogicBook. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1990.
  2. Barker, Stephen F. The Elements of Logic. Fifth Edition.McGraw-Hill, 1989.
  3. Boolos, George, and Jeffrey, Richard. Computability andLogic. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  4. Bergmann, Merrie, James Moor, and Jack Nelson. The LogicBook. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1990.
  5. Cederblom, Jerry and Paulsen, David. Critical Reasoning. 5th Edition, Jerry Cederblom University of Nebraska, Omaha, David Paulsen The Evergreen State College, Published by Wadsworth Publishing
  6. Copi, Irving M. and Cohen, Carl. Introduction to Logic. Eighth Edition, Macmillan, 1990.
  7. Engel, S. Morris. With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies. 5th Edition, St. Martin's Press, 1994.
  8. Gianelli, A.P. Meaningful Logic. Bruce PublishingCompany, 1962.
  9. Haack, Susan. Philosophy of Logics. Cambridge University Press, 1978.
  10. Huff, Darrell. How to Lie With Statistics. W.W. Norton, 1954.
  11. Hughes, G.H., and Cresswell, M.J. An Introduction to Modal Logic. Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1968.
  12. Jason, Gary. Introduction to Logic. Jones and Bartlett,1994.
  13. Jager, Ronald. Essays in Logic From Aristotle to Russell. Prentice-Hall, 1963.
  14. Jeffrey, Richard. Formal Logic: Its Scope and Limits.McGraw-Hill, 1981, 1967.
  15. Kelly, David. The Art of Reasoning. W.W. Norton, 1988.
  16. Pospesel, Howard. Introduction to Logic: PropositionalLogic. Second Edition. Prentice-Hall, 1984.
  17. Purtill, Richard L. Logic for Philosophers. Harperand Row, 1971.
  18. Thomason, Richmond. Symbolic Logic: An Introduction.Collier-Macmillan, 1970.
  19. Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments. Hackett, 1987.

© ESGS, 2002.