Human thought-that unique, subtle and yet most energetic phenomenon of nature-is in the main wantonly wasted, because we do not use, or take pains to use, suitable language; at the same time, false definitions lead to consequences not merely wasteful but positively harmful. When ideas and facts are falsely defined, they tend to bring us to false conclusions, and false conclusions lead us in wrong directions, and life and knowledge greatly suffer in consequence. Our progress is not a well ordered pursuit after truth, as pure chance plays too large a part in it.
Until lately, logic was supposed to be the science of correct thinking, but modern thought has progressed so far that the old logic is not able to handle the great accumulated volume -the great complicated mass of existing ideas and facts-and so we are forced to look for another instrument much more expedient and powerful. There is no need to establish a new science to replace logic; we simply have to look closer into the sciences at hand and realize the fact, which was with us all the time, namely, that mathematics and mathematical reasoning is nothing else than the true logic of nature -nature's universal tongue-the one means of expression that is the same for all peoples. This is not a play on words, it is a fact which, after investigation, everybody must admit. Everybody who wants to think logically must think mathematically or give up any pretense of correct thinking-there is no escape and all who refuse to investigate the justice of this statement put themselves outside the pale of logically thinking people. The application of rigorous thinking to life will even revolutionize scientific methods by the introduction of right definitions, correct classifications, just language, and so will lead to trustworthy results. Very probably all our doctrines and creeds will have to be revised; some rejected, some rectified, some broadened; bringing about unanimity of all sciences and thus greatly increasing their effectiveness in the pursuit of truth. This application of mathematics to life will even revolutionize mathematics itself. In App. I it is suggested tentatively how this may be accomplished.
As the seemingly ultimate and highest experimentally known energy is the human time-binding energy, this new concept may lead to a change in our present concepts of matter, space and time, in much the same way as the discovery of radium has affected them. This problem can be solved only by scientific experiments with the time-binding energy.
In many, even in most, of the cases, the analysis of these phenomena presents great technical difficulty, but why confuse our minds by being afraid of, or being a slave of words? If instead of calling wine wine, we called it by its chemical formula, would this, in any way, change the quality of wine? Of course not. All the "qualities" will remain because they are facts, and cannot be altered by words.
A most pathetic picture of the havoc and chaos which wrong use of words brings into life and science is exhibited in all fields of thought by the endless and bitter fighting over words not well defined. Mathematics has been able to make its most stupendous achievements because of its method of exact analysis of the continuum, dimensions, classes, relations, functions, transfinite numbers, etc., and also of space and time. Hitherto, not all of these conceptions in their sharply defined form have had direct application to our daily life or to our world conception. The thoughts expressed in App. I may suggest this "missing link"-connecting mathematics more intimately with life.
Modern science knows that all energies can be somehow transformed from one kind to another and that all of them represent one type of energetic phenomena, no matter what is the origin of each. For example, a galvanic or chemical battery produces the same kind of electricity as the mechanical process of friction or the interaction of cosmic laws as in the dynamo. In some instances, when our systems are suitably adjusted, the transformations are reversible, that is, the energy results in a chemical process-an accumulator; the chemical process results in electricity-the galvanic battery; motion results in electricity-the dynamo; electricity results in motion-the electric motor; etc. We know all energies are somehow related to each other, in that their transformation is possible. The effects produced by the same type of energy are absolutely the same-no matter what its origin. The marvel of an electric lamp is the same marvel, whether the origin of the electricity be chemical, mechanical or cosmic as in the dynamo. The experiments in scientific biology have proved this to be true in living organisms and just this is the tremendous importance of the discoveries in scientific biology. Light and other energies react on organisms in the same way as the chemical reactions and these phenomena are reversible. More than that, living complex organisms have been produced which grew to maturity through a chemical or mechanical treatment of the egg, and this has been accomplished in the infancy of scientific biology! (See The Organism as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb.)
All phenomena in nature are natural and should be approached as such. The human mind is at least an energy which can direct other energies; it is incorrect and misleading to call it supernatural. It is of course true that we do not fully understand the nature of the human mind and we shall learn to understand it when and only when we acquire sense enough to recognize it as natural. If we persist in saying and believing that the "spiritual evidences cannot be explained on a material base," this statement should be equally applicable to electricity or radium. If this statement is false for these phenomena, it is equally false for the mind or the so-called spiritual and will powers. The scientific understanding of these phenomena will not "degrade" these phenomena, because that cannot be done. Facts remain facts and no scientific explanation of a phenomenon can lower or degrade that which is a fact. Electricity is electricity and nothing else, no matter what its origin; human time-binding energies (embracing all faculties) are the highest of the known energies-equally magnificent and astonishing-no matter what the base; and the scientific understanding of them will only add to our respect for them and for ourselves; it will unmistakably help us to develop them indefinitely by mathematical analysis. The base is not the phenomenon- sulphuric acid and zinc are not electricity; time-binding energies are not a pound of beefsteak, although a pound of beefsteak may help to save life and be therefore instrumental in the production of a poem or of a sonata; but by no means can a beefsteak be taken for either of them.
I have attempted, with some measure of success I trust, to solve these problems in science and life; the results are astonishing, as they lead us to a much higher and more embracing ethics than society has ever had. By this analysis I prove that the understanding of this most stupendous but NATURAL phenomenon of human life brings us to the scientifical source of ethics and I prove that the so-called "highest ideals of humanity" have nothing of "sentimentalism" or of the "supernatural" in them, but are exclusively the fulfilment of the natural laws for the human class of life. The recognition of the fact that the phenomena of the human mind are natural and as such conform to natural law has the further advantage over the "supernatural" attitude in that we can no more evade a law of human nature than the law of gravity; in other words, human ethics will have the validity of natural law. With the supernatural attitude, it was simple enough to avoid the issues of life, by a simple statement-"I do not believe"-and that was enough to break all bonds and be free from the "supernatural morale"-but to get away from the "natural morale" and remain HUMAN is IMPOSSIBLE. Whereas, with an artificially formulated morale it was easy enough to break away by a simple mental speculation, and feel perfectly satisfied as long as one escaped the jail; with a morale made clear that it is a NATURAL LAW for the human class of life, the curtain of sophistry and speculation is removed and everyone who breaks away from the NATURAL LAWS FOR HUMANS, WILL KNOW BY HIMSELF, THAT HE IS OUTSIDE THE LAW-FOR HUMANS.
Engineers are not metaphysicians, their field is not one of clever argument but one of proved facts; their work is not to befog the air with cloudy expressions or sophistry, but to create; their method is scientific and their tool is mathematics. It is known that in remote antiquity, in some temples electrical phenomena were known and were used to keep the ignorant masses in awe and obedience. Shall we follow the methods used by those magicians or shall we squarely face facts? Shall we look upon life, and the usually so-called mental, spiritual phenomena, etc., as supernatural, simply because we do not understand them? It seems evident that everything which exists in nature, is natural, no matter how simple or complicated a phenomenon it is; and on no occasion can the so-called "supernatural" be anything else than a completely natural law, though it may, at the moment, be above or beyond our present understanding. The attitude of mind which admits the supernatural blinds and frustrates any analysis or any attempt at analysis. The unprejudiced analysis of the so-called "supernatural" does not alter any part of the strange and high functions of it. The phenomena of the human time-binding energy are and will remain the most precious, subtle and highest of known functions, no matter what the origin. Facts may not be denied or falsified if analysis is to arrive at correct conclusions. The high dimensionality of the human mind, the so-called spiritual and will powers, are facts and must be accepted as such. It is about time to establish an exact science to deal with them. The problems of animal life were approached without prejudice, no supernatural "spark" was bothering us in our analysis -an animal was an animal and nothing else-we did not intermix dimensions, therefore we see that the "social structure" of the animals on a farm never breaks down as they are managed on a scientific base with an understanding of their proper standards. Animals to-day live more happily than man. We don't allow animals to practice the "survival of the fittest," or "competition," which is far too destructive. Our present social system imposes these disastrous methods upon man alone, and the result is that the hideous proverb "Homo homini lupus" has become true.
In modern science facts are not wanting, we have first but to know them. If we take, for example, sulphuric acid and zinc and make what we call a galvanic battery, we see that from two chemical substances a third-a salt-is made in addition to which we have a peculiar energy produced called electricity. Who does not know the marvelous properties of this phenomenon ?
Scientific biology has made tremendous progress lately; engineers cannot afford to ignore the facts established in laboratory researches. The problem of "life" and of other energies, hitherto considered "supernatural," is well in hand, and proves to be none the less astonishing though entirely natural. A number of scientists all over the world are working at this problem and the scientific facts which they have established, and which cannot now be denied, belong to-day to the realm of practical life. Engineers, of course, have to know these facts; mathematicians have to establish correct dimensions in the study of all the sciences and people will have to study mathematical philosophy; only then can the process of integration in any phase of thought be made without mistakes. There is no escape from that, if truth is what we really want. But here one objection may be raised, an objection which for some is a serious one indeed; namely, what will take the place of the old philosophy, law and ethics, if human life is nothing else than a physico-chemical process? To quote Doctor Jacques Loeb from his Mechanistic Conception of Life: "If on the basis of a serious survey, this question (that all life phenomena can be unequivocally explained in physico-chemical terms-Author) can be answered in the affirmative, our social and ethical life will have to be put on a scientific basis and our rules of conduct must be brought into harmony with the results of scientific biology. Not only is the mechanistic conception of life compatible with ethics, it seems the only conception of life which can lead to an understanding of the source of ethics."
I hope to have proved in this book that scientific ethics is based on natural laws for the human class of life; that it is based on the experimentally proved fact that Man is a Time-binder, naturally active as such in time; and that this concept or definition of Man is rigorously scientific and accounts for the highest functions of man-the highest of the mental and spiritual perfections-without the need of any "supernatural" hypothesis.
Scientific biology proves the fact that life and all of its phenomena are the results of some special physico-chemical processes, which manifest themselves in some peculiar energies, of which the human mind is the highest known form. These processes are known to be reversible, in that some of these peculiar energies cause physico-chemical changes in their own base; the process involved I propose to call biolysis, as I propose to call biolyte the substances produced. These phenomena have a parallel analogy in inorganic chemistry-in electricity-the difference being only in the scale or dimension. When an electric current is passed through a special battery called an accumulator or reversible battery, chemical changes occur, in that new compounds are formed which possess a reversible capacity; namely, in reproducing the former materials-that is, electricity is generated. This process of forming chemical substances by the passing of an electrical current is called electrolysis and the product so produced is called electrolyte. At the same time it is a known fact that organic chemistry is infinitely more complicated and variable than inorganic chemistry. The energy produced by the reactions of some organic chemical groups are, therefore, of a more complicated character and of another dimension. One of these energies of organic chemistry which lately has come into the scope of scientific analysis is called life-its physico-chemical base is the protoplasm, which result I call the "time-linking" capacity or energy. This name is important for the consequences it will bring about later on. The time-binding capacity or energy of man ( no matter what time is-if it is), which is unique to man, is a most subtle complex; it is the highest known energy and probably has many subdivisions. Ears are sensitive to the vibration of the air. Eyes are sensitive to the more subtle vibrations of light; in a similar way, the time-binding apparatus is sensitive to the most subtle energies; besides which it has the capacity to register not only all of our sensations but also the time-binding energies of other people; and it apparently has the capacity to register the energies of the universe.
Here again we see the same continuity of phenomena; the protoplasm as a complex organic physico-chemical unit which has the peculiarity to "live," to grow and multiply "autonomously" and this same autonomous peculiarity applies to the time-binding energy; it grows and multiplies "autonomously" in its own dimension. The time-binding energy is a complex radiating energy somewhat like the emanations of radium and it probably also has many different subdivisions. Note that the transformation of the atom or the transformation of radio-active substances after passing different stages, is not complete but probably ends in lead, whereas the transformation which occurs in the production of the time-binding energy probably is complete or nearly complete and is that which I call the time-binding energy.. (See App. I.) All the higher characteristics of man which it is customary to call the "mental, spiritual and will powers," etc., are embraced in this exact definition of energy-in the capacity of time-binding. A diagram will better explain the continuity, evolution and mechanism of this time-binding energy.
C1 is the physico-chemical base (for simplicity I represent the whole complex as one base) of the human time-binding energy. T1 is the thought produced by a physico-chemical process (corresponding, for illustration's sake only, to electricity produced by a galvanic battery). The thought T1 in turn produces a physico-chemical effect E1 on the base Cl (corresponding for the same reason to electrolysis and electrolyte in electricity). Cl and E1 combined, or C2 produces T2 which again in turn affects the base and produces a physico-chemical effect E2, this new combination produces the energy T3, and so on . . . theoretically without limits, as long as there is any source of energy upon which this special energy can draw. This theory which I call the "spiral theory" represents a suggestive working mechanism of the time-binding energy and is in accord with the latest scientific discoveries. It explains the processes of all the mental and so-called spiritual energies which have been such a puzzle to humanity, and it also explains other phenomena which, until now, have had no scientific explanation whatever.
The animals are not time-binding, they have not the capacity of the "spiral"; therefore, they have not autonomous progress. At the same time, it will be obvious that if we teach humans false ideas, we affect their time-binding capacities and energies very seriously, by affecting in a wrong way the physico-chemical base. This energy is so peculiar that it embraces, if I may use the old expression, the highest ideals (when the time-binding energy is unobstructed and is allowed to work normally), and also the most criminal ideas (when the time-binding energy is obstructed by false teachings and in consequence works abnormally). We cannot make animals moral or immoral because they have not this time-binding capacity. Whereas human progress can be very seriously affected by false ideas; in other words, the biolyte of false teachings in the animal dimension must be very different from the biolyte of true ideas in the human dimension. Nature or nature's laws happily cannot be completely deviated from or violated-the time-binding energy cannot be completely suppressed in the time-binding class of life. The false teachings that we are animals and essentially brutal and selfish can, of course, degrade human nature not only down to the animal level but lower still. Happily now science can explain and prove how fundamentally fiendish in effect are these teachings in the life and progress of human beings. It will be a shock to those who teach, preach and practice animal standards and in the same breath contradict themselves in any talking about "immortality" and "salvation"; a little thought makes it perfectly clear that "animal standards" and "salvation" or "immortality" simply exclude each other. With the natural law of time-binding realized, the way is open to entering scientifically upon the problem of immortality. The time-binding energies as well as "life" follow the same type of exponential function. "The constant synthesis then of specific material from simple compounds of a non-specific character is the chief feature by which living matter differs from non-living matter.... This problem of synthesis leads to the assumption of immortality of the living cell, since there is no a priori reason why this synthesis should ever come to a standstill of its own accord as long as enough food is available and the proper outside physical conditions are guaranteed.... The idea that the body cells are naturally immortal and die only if exposed to extreme injuries such as prolonged lack of oxygen or too high a temperature helps to make one problem more intelligible. The medical student, who for the first time realizes that life depends upon that one organ, the heart, doing its duty incessantly for the seventy years or so allotted to man, is amazed at the precariousness of our existence. It seems indeed uncanny that so delicate a mechanism should function so regularly for so many years. The mysticism connected with this and other phenomena of adaptation would disappear if we would be certain that all cells are really immortal and that the fact which demands an explanation is not the continued activity but the cessation of activity in death. Thus we see that the idea of the immortality of the body cell if it can be generalized may be destined to become one of the main supports for a complete physico-chemical analysis of life phenomena since it makes the durability of organisms intelligible...." (The Organism as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb.)
The outlook for those who live and profess selfish, greedy, "space-binding animal standards" is not very promising as disclosed by the "spiral," but unhappily we cannot help them; only time-binding-only fulfilling the natural laws for humans-can give them the full benefit of their natural capacities by which they will be able to raise themselves above animals and their fate.
The results obtained in scientific biological researches are growing very rapidly and every advance in their knowledge proves this theory to be true. If they differ in a few instances it is not because the principles of this theory are wrong, but because they intermix dimensions and use words not sufficiently defined which always results in confusion and the checking of the progress of science.
Most of the problems touched upon in this appendix from a mathematical point of view are based upon laboratory facts. We have only to collect them and there is little need of imagination to see their general bearing. Since we have discovered the fact that Man is a time-binder (no matter what time is) and have introduced the sense of dimensionality into the study of life phenomena in general, a great many facts which were not clear before become very clear now.
I wrote this book on a farm without any books at hand and I had been out of touch with the progress of science for the five years spent in the war service and war duties. My friend Dr. Grove-Korski, formerly at Berkeley University, drew my attention particularly to the books of Dr. Jacques Loeb. I found there a treasury of laboratory facts which illustrate as nothing better could, the correctness of my theory. I found with deep satisfaction that the new "scientific biology" is scientific because it has used mathematical methods with notable regard to dimensionality-they do not "milk an automobile."
For the mathematician and the engineer, the "tropism theory of animal conduct," founded by Dr. J. Loeb, is of the greatest interest, because this is a theory which analyses the functions and reactions of an organism as a whole and therefore there is no chance for confusion of ideas or the intermixing of dimensions.
"Physiologists have long been in the habit of studying not the reactions of the whole organism but the reactions of isolated segments; the so-called reflexes. While it may seem justifiable to construct the reactions of the organism as a whole from the individual reflexes, such an attempt is in reality doomed to failure, since the reactions produced in an isolated element cannot be counted upon to occur when the same element is part of the whole, on account of the mutual inhibitions which the different parts of the organism produce upon each other when in organic connection; and it is, therefore, impossible to express the conduct of a whole animal as the algebraic sum of the reflexes of its isolated segments.... It would, therefore, be a misconception to speak of tropism as of reflexes, since tropisms are reactions of the organism as a whole, while reflexes are reactions of isolated segments. Reflexes and tropisms agree, however, in one respect, inasmuch as both are obviously of a purely physico-chemical character." Forced Movements-Tropism and Animal Conduct. By Jacques Loeb.
I will quote here only a very few passages, but these books are of such importance that every mathematician and engineer should read them. They are, if I may say so, a "mathematical biology"-the survey of a life long study of "tropisms," which is the name given to express "forced movements" in organisms. They give the quintessence of laboratory experiments as to what are the effects of different energies such as light (heliotropism), electricity (galvanotropism), gravity (geotropism), etc., in their reaction and influence upon the movements and actions of living organisms. These experiments are conclusive and the conclusions arrived at cannot be overlooked or evaded. The tremendous practical results of such scientific methods are based upon two principles, namely: that, (1) the scientists must think mathematically, their studies of the phenomena must be in "systems" as a complex whole, and they must not intermix dimensions; (2) they must see the danger and not be afraid of old words with wrong meanings, but must use clear and rigorous thinking to eliminate the prejudices in science-the poison of metaphysical speculating with words, or verbalism. These books give ample proofs of how misleading and obscuring are the words used and how basically wrong are the conclusions arrived at by such scientists as still persist in using the anthropomorphic or teleological methods of analysis. If a sceptical or doubtful reader is interested to see an ample proof of how deadly is the effect which an incorrect or unmathematical manner of thinking brings into science and life-he also may be referred to these books. The following quotations prove biologically that man is of a totally different dimension-a totally different being than an animal. From Dr. Conklin I quote only from his Heredity and Environment and to save a repetition of the title of the book, I will indicate the quotations by using only his name. (All italics are indicated by A. K.)
"It would be of the greatest importance to show directly that the homologous proteins of different species are different. This has been done for hemoglobins of the blood by Reichert and Brown, who have shown by crystallographic measurements that the hemoglobins of any species are definite substances for that species.... The following sentences by Reichert and Brown seem to indicate that this may be true for the crystals of hemoglobin. 'The hemoglobins of any species are different substances for that species. But upon comparing the corresponding substances hemoglobins in different species of a genus it is generally found that they differ the one from the other to a greater or less degree; the differences being such that when complete crystallographic data are available the different species can be distinguished by these differences in their hemoglobins'. . . . The facts thus far reported imply the suggestion that heredity of the genus is determined by the proteins of a definite constitution differing from the proteins of other genera. This constitution of the proteins would therefore be responsible for the genus heredity. The different species of a genus have all the same genus proteins, but the proteins of each species of the same genus are apparently different again in chemical constitution and hence they may give rise to the specific biological or immunity reactions." The Organism as a Whole, by Jacques Loeb.
"All peculiarities which are characteristic of a race, species, genus, order, class and phylum are of course inherited, otherwise there would be no constant characteristics of these groups and no possibility of classifying organisms. The chief characters of every living thing are unalterably fixed by heredity. Men do not gather grapes of thorns nor figs of thistles. Every living thing produces off-spring after its own kind, Men, horses, cattle; birds, reptiles, fishes; insects, mollusks, worms; polyps, sponges, micro-organisms,-all of the million known species of animals and plants differ from one another because of inherited peculiarities, because they have come from different kinds of germ cells." Conklin.
"The entire organism consisting of structures and functions, body and mind, develops out of the germ, and the organization of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of the mind no less than of the body, though the actual realization of any possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli." . . Conklin.
"The development of the mind parallels that of the body; whatever the ultimate relation of the mind and body may be, there can be no reasonable doubt that the two develop together from the germ. It is a curious fact that many people who are seriously disturbed by scientific teaching as to the evolution or gradual development of the human race accept with equanimity the universal observation as to the development of the human individual,-mind as well as body. The animal ancestry of the race is surely no more disturbing to philosophical or religious beliefs than the germinal origin of the individual, and yet the latter is a fact of universal observation which cannot be relegated to the domain of hypothesis or theory, and which can not be successfully denied.... Now we know that the child comes from the germ cells which are not made by the bodies of the parents but have arisen by the division of the antecedent germ cell. Every cell comes from a pre-existing cell by a process of division, and every germ cell comes from a pre-existing germ cell. Consequently it is not possible to hold, that the body generates germ cells, nor that the soul generates souls. The only possible scientific position is that the mind or soul as well as the body develops from the germ.
"No fact in human experience is more certain than that the mind develops by gradual and natural processes from a simple condition which can scarcely be called mind at all; no fact In human experience is fraught with greater practical and philosophical significance than this, and yet no fact is more generally disregarded." Conklin.
"Doubtless the elements of which consciousness develops are present in the germ cells, in the same sense that the elements of the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are there present, not as a miniature of the adult condition, but rather in the form of elements or factors, which by long series of combinations and transformations, due to interactions with one another and with the environment, give rise to the fully developed condition.... It is an interesting fact that in man, and in several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of identity, the nerve cells, especially those of the brain, cease dividing at an early age, and these identical cells persist throughout the remainder of life." . . .
"The hen does not produce the egg, but the egg produces the hen and also other eggs. Individual traits are not transmitted from the hen to the egg, but they develop out of germinal factors which are carried along from cell to cell, and from generation to generation. . . ."
"The germ is the undeveloped organism which forms the bond between successive generations; the person is the developed organism which arises from the germ under the influence of environmental conditions, the person develops and dies in each generation; the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living substance which connects all generations. The person nourishes and protects the germ, and in this sense the person is merely the carrier of the germ-plasm, the mortal trustee of an immortal substance." Conklin.
This is what I call "time-linking." (Author.)
"Through intelligence and social cooperation he is able to control environment for particular ends, in a manner quite impossible in other organisms.... Other animals develop much more rapidly than man but that development sooner comes to an end. The children of lower races of man develop more rapidly than those of higher races but in such cases they also cease to develop at an earlier age. The prolongation of the period of infancy and of immaturity in the human race greatly increases the importance of environment and training as factors of development." Conklin.
Another sidelight given on the "Spiral theory." (Author.)
"In education also we are strangely blind to proper aims and methods. Any education is bad which leads to the formation of habits of idleness, carelessness, failure, instead of habits of industry, thoroughness and success. Any religious or social institution is bad which leads to habits of pious make-believe, insincerity, slavish regard for authority and disregard for evidence, instead of habits of sincerity, open-mindedness and independence. . . ."
"All that man now is he has come to be without conscious human guidance. If evolution has progressed from the amoeba to man without human interference, if the great progress from ape-like men to the most highly civilized races has taken place without conscious human control, the question may well be asked: Is it possible to improve on the natural method of evolution? It may not be possible to improve on the method of evolution and yet by intelligent action it may be possible to facilitate that method. Man can not change a single law of nature but he can put himself into such relations to natural laws that he can profit by them." Conklin.
This proves the great importance of KNOWING THE NATURAL LAWS for the human class of life, and making natural time-binding impulses conscious, for then only will the spiral give a logarithmical accumulation of the right kind, otherwise the biolyte will be "animal" in substance as well as in effect. Here it is immaterial how the first "time-binder" was produced; the fact that he is of another dimension is of the greatest importance.
"From sands to stars, from the immensity of the universe to the minuteness of the electron, in living things no less than in lifeless ones, science recognizes everywhere the inevitable sequence of cause and effect, the universality of natural processes, the reign of natural law. Man also is a part of Nature, a part of the great mechanism of the universe, and all that he is and does is limited and prescribed by laws of nature. Every human being comes into existence by a process of development, every step of which is determined by antecedent causes.... Our anatomical, physiological, psychological possibilities were predetermined in the germ cells from which we came...." Conklin.
This shows the importance of keeping the study of humans in their own dimensionality, and also the importance of finding the IMPERSONAL NATURAL LAWS for the human class of life. Now it can be realized that all the so-called human ideals are none else than the ever growing fulfillment of the NATURAL TIME-BINDING LAWS. This understanding will enable man to discover new "time-binding" laws for their conduct, their business relations, their state, which will not be a contradiction of the real, NATURAL LAWS but will be in accord with them; then and only then human progress will have a chance to develop peacefully.
"Adult characteristics are potential and not actual in the germ, and their actual appearance depends upon many complicated reactions of the germinal units with one another and with the environment. In short, our actual personalities are not predetermined in the germ cells, but our possible personalities are.... I he influence of environment upon the minds and morals of men is especially great. To a large extent our habits, words, thoughts; our aspirations, ideals, satisfactions; our responsibility, morality, religion are the results of the environment and education of our early years.... "
"Owing to this vastly greater power of memory, reflection and inhibition man IS much freer than any other animal. Animals which learn little from experience have little freedom and the more they learn the freer they become.... " Conklin.
It may be added here that the "spiral theory" explains how our reactions can be accelerated and elaborated by ourselves, and how truly we are the masters of our destinies.
"Because we can find no place in our philosophy and logic for self determination shall we cease to be scientists and close our eyes to the evidence? The first duty of science is to appeal to fact and to settle later with logic and philosophy.... " Conklin.
There will be no difficulty in the settlement of facts with the new philosophy of "Human Engineering."
"The analysis of instinct from a purely physiological point of view ultimately furnishes the data for a scientific ethics. Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and harmonious satisfaction of the instincts.... It is rather remarkable that we should still be under the influence of an ethics which considers the human instincts in themselves low and their gratification vicious. That such an ethics must have had a comforting effect upon the orientals, whose instincts were inhibited or warped through the combined effects of an enervating climate, despotism and miserable economic conditions is intelligible, and it is perhaps due to a continuation of the unsatisfactory economic conditions that this ethics still prevails to some extent.... Lawyers, criminologists and philosophers frequently imagine that only want makes man work. This is an erroneous view. We are instinctively forced to be active in the same way as ants or bees. The instinct of workmanship would be the greatest source of happiness if it were not for the fact that our present social and economic organization allows only a few to satisfy this instinct. Robert Mayer has pointed out that any successful display or setting free of energy is a source of pleasure to us. This is the reason why the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship is of such importance in the economy of life, for the play and learning of the child, as well as for the scientists or commercial work of the man.... We can vary at will the instincts of animals. A number of marine animals . . . go away from the light, can be forced to go to light in two ways, first by lowering the temperature and second by increasing the concentration of the sea water, whereby the cells of the animals lose water. This instinct can be again reversed by raising the temperature or by lowering the concentration of the sea water. I have found repeatedly that by the same conditions by which phenomena of growth and organization can be controlled the instincts are controlled also. This indicates that there is a common basis for both classes of life phenomena. This common base is the physical and chemical character of the mixture of substances which we call protoplasm.
. . . The greatest happiness in life can be obtained only if all instincts, that of workmanship included, can be maintained at a certain optimal intensity. But while it is certain that the individual can ruin or diminish the value of its life by a onesided development of its instincts, e.g., dissipation, it is at the same time true that the economic and social conditions can ruin or diminish the value of life for a great number of individuals. It is no doubt true that in our present social and economic conditions more than ninety per cent of human beings lead an existence whose value is far below what it should be. They are compelled by want to sacrifice a number of instincts especially the most valuable among them, that of workmanship, in order to save the lowest and most imperative, that of eating. If those who amass immense fortunes could possibly intensify their lives with their abundance, it might perhaps be rational to let many suffer in order to have a few cases of true happiness. But for an increase of happiness only that amount of money is of service which can be used for the harmonious development and satisfaction of inherited instincts. For this, comparatively little is necessary. The rest is of no more use to a man than the surplus of oxygen in the atmosphere. As a matter of fact, the only true satisfaction a multimillionaire can possibly get from increasing his fortunes, is the satisfaction of the instinct of workmanship or the pleasure that is connected with a successful display of energy. The scientist gets this satisfaction without diminishing the value of life of his fellow being, and the same should be true for the business man.... Although we recognize no metaphysical free-will, we do not deny personal responsibility. We can fill the memory of the young generation with such associations as will prevent wrong doing or dissipation.... Cruelty in the penal code and the tendency to exaggerate punishment are sure signs of a low civilization and of an imperfect educational system.... It seems to me that we can no more expect to unravel the mechanism of associative memory by histological or morphological methods than we can expect to unravel the dynamics of electrical phenomena by microscopic study of cross-sections through a telegraph wire or by counting and locating the telephone connections in a big city. If we are anxious to develop a dynamic of the various life-phenomena, we must remember that the colloidal substances are the machines which produce the life phenomena, but the physics of these substances is still a science of the future.... Physiology gives us no answer to the latter question. The idea of specific energy has always been regarded as the terminus for the investigation of the sense organs. Mach expressed the opinion that chemical conditions lie at the foundation of sensation in general.... " Comparative Physiology of the Brain, by Jacques Loeb.
Here it may be added that the "Instinct of Workmanship" in the animal class, becomes in the time-binding class of life the instinct of creation, and is nothing else than the expression of the natural impulse of the "Time-binding" energy. In the present social and economic system very few have a possibility to satisfy this instinct; scientific management is or may be satisfying the animal instinct of workmanship, but it is not satisfactory to the instinct of creation. "Time-binding" in its last analysis is creation and only such a social and economic system as will satisfy this want-this natural impulse-will satisfy Humans-the "Time-binders"-and will bring about their fullest growth in work and happiness.
"LAWS OF GROWTH" (from Unified Mathematics, by Louis C. Karpinski, Ph.D.). "Compound interest function.-The function S=P(1+i)n is of fundamental importance in other fields than in finance. Thus the growth of timber of a large forest tract may be expressed as a function of this kind, the assumption being that in a large tract the rate of growth may be taken as uniform from year to year. In the case of bacteria growing under ideal conditions in a culture, i.e. with unlimited food supplied, the increase in the number of bacteria per second is proportional to the number of bacteria present at the beginning of that second. Any function in which the rate of change or rate of growth at any instant t is directly proportional to the value of the function at the instant t obeys what has been termed the 'law of organic growth,' and may be expressed by the equation,
wherein c and k are constants determined by the physical facts involved, and e is a constant of nature analogous to . The constant k is the proportionality constant and is negative when the quantity in question decreases; c is commonly positive;
"The values of the function of x, cekx, increase according to the terms of a geometrical progression as the variable x increases in arithmetical progression. . . .
"The most immediate application of a function in which the growth is proportional to the function itself is to the air. The decrease in the pressure of the air at the distance h above the earth's surface is proportional to h.
"The expression P= gives the numerical value of the pressure in millimeters of mercury for h measured in meters. The negative exponent indicates that the pressure decreases as h increases. In inches as units of length of the mercury column, h in feet,
This is known as Halley's law.
"The growth of bean plants within limited intervals and the growth of children, again between quite restricted limits, follow approximately the law of organic growth. Radium in decomposing follows the same law; the rate of decrease at any instant being proportional to the quantity. In the case of vibrating bodies, like a pendulum, the rate of decrease of the amplitude follows this law; similarly in the case of a noise dying down and in certain electrical phenomena, the rate of decrease is proportional at any instant to the value of the function at the instant....
"The Curve of Healing of a Wound.-Closely allied to the formulas expressing the law of organic growth, y = ekt, and the law of 'organic decay,' y=e-kt, is a recently discovered law which connects algebraically by an equation and graphically by a curve, the surface-area of a wound, with time expressed in days, measured from the time when the wound is aseptic or sterile. When this aseptic condition is reached, by washing and flushing continually with antiseptic solutions, two observations at an interval commonly of four days give the 'index of the individual,' and this index, and the two measurements of area of the wound-surface, enable the physician-scientist to determine the normal progress of the wound-surface. the expected decrease in area, for this wound surface of this individual. The area of the wound is traced carefully on transparent paper, and then computed by using a mathematical machine, called a planimeter, which measures areas.
"The areas of the wound are plotted as ordinates with the respective times of observation measured in days as abscissas. After each observation and computation of area the point so obtained is plotted to the same axes as the graph which gives the ideal or prophetic curve of healing.
"When the observed area is found markedly greater than that determined by the ideal curve, the indication is that there is still infection in the wound.... A rather surprising and unexplained situation occurs frequently when the wound-surface heals more rapidly than the ideal curve would indicate; in this event secondary ulcers develop which bring the curve back to normal.....
"This application of mathematics to medicine is largely due to Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. He noted that the larger the wound-surface, the more rapidly it healed, and that the rate of healing seemed to be proportional to the area. This proportionality constant is not the same for all values of the surface or we would have an equation of the form,
in which S, is the area at the time that the wound is rendered sterile and observations to be plotted really begin....
"The data given are taken from the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reprints kindly furnished by Major George A. Stewart of the Rockefeller Institute. The diagrams are reproduced from the issue of Feb. 1, 1918, pp. 171 and 172, article by Dr. T. Tuffier and R. Desmarres, Auxiliary Hospital 75, Paris. . . .
"WAVE MOTION. General.-In nature there are two types of recurrent motion, somewhat closely connected mathematically, in which repetition of motion occurs at regular intervals.
"One type of this motion, in cycles as we may say, repeats the motion in one place, and is in a sense stationary. The tuning fork in motion moves through the same space again and again; a similar movement is the motion of a vibrating string. Of this stationary type may be mentioned the heartbeats, the pulse, the respiration, the tides, and the rotation of a wheel about its axis.
"The second type of recurrent motion transmits or carries the vibratory impulse over an extent of space as well as time. The waves of the sea are of this character. Sound waves, electrical vibrations or waves, and radiant energy vibrations are transmitted by a process similar to that by which the waves of the sea are carried.
"Both of these types of motion are representable mathematically by equations involving a sequence of trigonometric functions. To the fundamental and basic function involved, y= sin x, we will direct our attention in the next section and to simple applications in other sections of this chapter....
"Sound Waves.-If a tuning fork for note lower C is set to vibrating, the free bar makes 129 complete, back-and-forth, vibrations in one second. By attaching a fine point to the end of the bar and moving under this bar at a uniform rate, as it vibrates, a smoke-blackened paper, a sinusoidal curve is traced on the paper. Our curve is traced by a bar vibrating 50 times in 1 second.
"Corresponding to each movement of the vibrating rod there is a movement of the air. As the bar moves to the right it compresses the layer of air to its right and that compression is immediately communicated to the layer of air to the right; as the bar moves back and to the left, the pressure on the adjacent air is released and a rarefaction takes place. In of 1 second you have the air adjacent to the rod compressed, back to normal, and rarefied; during this time the neighboring air is affected and the compression is communicated a distance which is the wave length of this given sound wave. In 1 second this disturbance is transmitted 1100 feet at 44° Fahrenheit. The wave length for this sound wave then is = 22 feet.
"The wave length is commonly
designated by l.
If V is the velocity. and t the time of one vibration.
"Vibration records produced by the voice: 'a' as in 'ate'; 'ou' as in 'about'; 'r' in 'relay'; 'e' in 'be'; and 'a' in 'father.' The tuning fork record, frequency 50 per second, gives the vibration frequencies. . . ."
This last drawing may help to visualize the fact in what manner wrong expressions and untrue teachings hamper the true progress of humanity. Every word has its energy and produces some physico-chemical effects in the time-binding apparatus in accord with the idea which we associate with the sound of the word. If we teach ideas which are untrue, then the physico-chemical effects produced are not proper- in other words the human mind does NOT WORK PROPERLY, that is, it does not work naturally or normally or true to the human dimension. There is every reason why the standards in our civilization are so low, because we have "poisoned," in a literal sense of the word, our minds with the physico-chemical effects of wrong ideas. This correct NATURAL APPROACH to the "Time-binding" energies will make it obvious how unmeasured is the importance of the manner in which we handle this subtle mechanism, as the poisoning with wrong ideas or with careless or incorrect words does not in any way differ in consequences from poisoning with any other stupor-producing or wrongly stimulating poison.
MONOGRAPHS ON EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY
LOEB, J.: Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology." New York, 1900.
LOEB, J.: "Studies in General Physiology." Chicago, 1905.
LOEB, J.: "The Dynamics of Living Matter." New York, 1906.
LOEB, J.: "The Mechanistic Conception of Life." Chicago, 1912.
I. The Mechanistic Conception of Life.
II. The Significance of Tropisms for Psychology.
III. Some Fundamental Facts and Conceptions concerning the Comparative Physiology of the Central Nervous System.
IV. Pattern Adaptation of Fishes and the Mechanism of Vision..
V. On Some Facts and Principles of Physiological Morphology.
VI. -On the Nature of the Process of Fertilization.
VII. On the Nature of Formative Stipulation (Artificial Parthenogenesis).
VIII. The Prevention of the Death of the Egg through the Act of Fertilization.
IX. The Role of Salts in the Preservation of Life.
X. Experimental Study of the Influence of Environment on Animals.
LOEB, J.: The Organism as a Whole. G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York. 1916.
I. Introductory Remarks.
II. The Specific Difference between Living and Dead Matter and the Question of the Origin of Life.
III. The Chemical Basis of Genus and Species:
1. The Incompatibility of Species not Closely Related.
2. The Chemical basis of Genus and Species and of Species Specificity.
IV. Specificity in Fertilization.
V. Artificial Parthenogenesis.
VI. Determinism in the Formation of an Organism from an Egg.
VIII. Determination of Sex, Secondary Sexual Characters and Sexual Instincts:
1. The Cytological Basis of Sex Determination.
2. The Physiological Basis of Sex Determination.
IX. Mendelian Heredity and its Mechanism.
X. Animal Instincts and Tropisms.
XI. The Influence of Environment.
XII. Adaptation to Environment.
XIV. Death and Dissolution of the Organism.
LOEB, J.: "Forced Movements, Tropisms, and Animal Conduct." T. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1918.
II. The Symmetry Relations of the Animal Body as the Starting Point for the Theory of Animal Conduct.
III. Forced Movements.
V. Heliotropism. The Influence of One Source of Light.
1. General Facts.
2. Direct Proof of the Muscle Tension Theory of Heliotropism in Motile Animals.
3. Heliotropism of Unicellular Organisms.
4. Heliotropism of Sessile Animals.
VI. An Artificial Heliotropic Machine.
VII. Asymmetrical Animals.
VIII. Two Sources of Light of Different Intensity.
IX. The Validity of the Bunsen-Roscoe Law for the Heliotropic Reactions of Animals and Plants.
X. The Effect of Rapid Changes in Intensity of Light.
XI. The Relative Heliotropic Efficiency of Light of Different Wave Lengths.
XII. Change in the Sense of Heliotropism.
XIV. Forced Movements Caused by Moving Retina Images: Rheotropism: Anemotropism.
XIX. Memory Images and Tropisms.
A list of 554 books on this subject, in which any reader interested will find a vast storehouse of exact knowledge in this line. Author.
CONKLIN, EDWIN GRANT: Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men." Princeton University Press, 5.
I. Facts and Factors of Development.
A. Phenomena of Development.
B. Factors of Development.
II. Cellular Basis of Heredity and Development.
B. The Germ Cells.
C. The Mechanism of Heredity.
D. The Mechanism of Development.
III. Phenomena of Inheritance.
A. Observations on Inheritance.
B. Statistical Study of Inheritance.
C. Experimental Study of Inheritance.
IV. Influence of Environment.
A. Relative Importance of Heredity and Environment.
B. Experimental Modifications of Development.
C. Functional Activity as a Factor of Development.
D. Inheritance or Non-inheritance of Acquired Characters.
E. Applications to Human Development: Eugenics.
V. Control of Heredity: Eugenics.
A. Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants.
B. Control of Human Heredity.
VI. Genetics and Ethics.
Glossary of books on this subject; for those who desire to be more fully acquainted with the subjects of heredity and development. Author.
MORGAN, T. H., "Physical Basis of Heredity."
EAST, E. M., and JONES, D. F., "Inbreeding and Outbreeding," etc.
PARKER, G. H., "The Elementary Nervous System."
HARVEY, E. N., "The Nature of Animal Light."